Results/Conclusions Removal of insect seed predators significantly increased seed survival compared to controls and other treatments. Seed removal was low overall for species in one forest, where vertebrate seed disperser abundance has been reduced by habitat fragmentation and hunting. Few studies to date have experimentally determined the combined effects of vertebrate seed dispersers, insect seed predators, and pathogens at the pre-dispersal stage. Determining which of these organisms has the greatest effect on plant communities is important in determining the mechanisms controlling plant population dynamics and how plant communities may respond to environmental change. Vertebrate seed dispersal, insect seed predation, and fungal diseases are expected to change in the face of increasing anthropogenic pressures on ecosystems, including hunting, deforestation, and global warming.