Results/Conclusions Past fire suppression was indicated by a more than quadrupling of canopy tree density since 1834. Seventy-nine percent of savanna indicator species were limited or most important on slopes compared to flatwoods. Alpha diversity was significantly correlated with fire frequency at all spatial scales and was most highly correlated at the 0.25 m2 plot size, whereas it was only significantly correlated with topographic slope at the 64 m2 plot size. Beta diversity decreased with fire frequency in flatwoods but not on slopes. Richness in 0.25 m2 plots explained < 50% of the variation in richness in 64 m2 plots. The ability of a small sampling plot to predict larger scale richness is modest and will be affected by the fire history and topographic position of the plot. The increase in ground-layer diversity with fire will be greatest at small sales, but will depend on topographic slope and the influence of past fire suppression on the local species pool. Restoration of flatwoods, but not slopes, will require the reintroduction of savanna indicator species.