Results/Conclusions The presence of the exotic mustard Alyssum desertorum significantly reduced bacterial diversity and abundance compared to soils of the native grass Poa secunda and other winter range soils. The abundance of AOB and NOB were reduced by 3-fold in Alyssum soils compared to Poa soils. Soils from the other winter range site were not different from Poa soil in GB with regard to AOB and NOB. Soil respiration and N was significantly lower in Alyssum soils and there were no differences between Poa soils and the other YNP soils. Application of simulated urine in Alyssum soils did not have an effect on bacteria parameters. However urine application increased soil respiration by 25% and soil N by 30%. In Poa and the other northern range soils simulated urine significantly altered bacterial diversity and abundance. AOB and NOB bacterial abundance decreased over time following the urine treatment. AOB abundance was significantly correlated with soil respiration and soil N concentration. Our results suggest that the presence of Alyssum has uncoupled C and N processes. This response in part appears related to shifts in bacterial diversity and abundance. However, the invasion by Alyssum in GB has not affected the soils in which the native grass Poa still occurs. Our results indicate that restoration efforts in GB can be successful due to the persistence of native soil bacterial communities within invaded soils.