Fire was a persistent process in the study region over the late-Holocene. Since 2000 yr BP, when regional moisture gradually decreased towards present, we estimate a site-specific (i.e. within a ≈ 1-km radius) median fire-return interval (mFRI) of 120 yr (95% CI 105-150). FRIs changed through time, however, coincident with millennial-scale changes in moisture. Higher FRIs during a period of steadily increasing moisture ca. 4000-2000 yr BP (p = 0.049; mFRI 165 yr [135-240]) suggest a direct link between climate and tundra burning. From 5000-4000 yr BP, regional moisture was again characterized by increasingly dry conditions; FRIs during this period (mFRI = 150 yr [90-195]) were shorter than those during the moist period (p = 0.092) but similar to FRIs over the past 2000 yr (p = 0.333). Links between fire-regime and vegetation shifts were complex and suggest a minor or secondary role of vegetation in influencing late-Holocene tundra fire regimes. Our results (1) indicate that tundra ecosystems can burn more frequently than observed in most modern tundra, and (2) suggest that tundra burning will increase in response to ongoing and future decreases in relative moisture in the Arctic.