OOS 35 - How Mountains Maintain Diversity: Evaluating Climate Refugia From Genetics, Paleoecology, and Models

Wednesday, August 8, 2012: 1:30 PM-5:00 PM
C124, Oregon Convention Center
Daniel G. Gavin, University of Oregon
Solomon Dobrowski, University of Montana; and Feng Sheng Hu, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Daniel G. Gavin, University of Oregon
Biodiverse areas marked by endemism and populations disjunct from main distributions are arguably conservation priorities because of their species diversity, genetic distinctiveness, and biogeographic significance. Through the glacial intervals of the Quaternary, ‘refugial’ areas for temperate tree species, inferred by paleorecords, were located hundreds to thousands of km from the ice sheets. Over the past two decades evidence has accumulated that, in addition to low-latitude refugia, mid- and high-latitude refugia existed that supported warm-adapted species. Such populations decrease the risk of extinction of species with low mobility that would otherwise be required to migrate long distances to areas with a suitable climate. Small isolated (cryptic) northern refugia would have served as important predispersed nuclei for postglacial range expansion. Indeed, population histories comprising of persistence through glacial periods and subsequent range expansion data may partly explain modern patterns of biodiversity from the Arctic to the tropics. How species persisted through the large climatic changes of the Pleistocene has been a long-standing focus of paleoecological research. However, because paleoecological archives are patchy, and potential refugia are small, holes remain in our understanding of the importance of northern refugia. Consequently, the historical record remains under-utilized to help reduce such uncertainties. Recently, phylogeography and distribution modeling have offered new insights unavailable from paleorecords. Reconstruction of Pleistocene refugia and migration routes should offer insights into how mountainous terrain may have buffered species populations through periods of significant climate change. This session will bring together researchers who work on historical reconstruction of populations from different disciplines and to assess the prospect for ‘best evidence syntheses’ to leverage the results from any one approach. The talks will include: 1) an introduction to the concept of climate relicts with a focus on patterns of endemism, 2) paleoecology studies from mountainous terrain, 3) phylogeography studies that support presence of refugia, and 4) mountain climatology and species distribution modeling including topographic influences on microclimates under present and past climates. This session addresses the need to identify and preserve Nature’s recent historical legacies. The convergence of bioinformatics of species distributions, new paleoecological data sets, and advanced methods in phylogeography and microclimatology allows for new syntheses highly relevant to biodiversity conservation. The Pacific Northwest is an excellent setting for this topic because textbook examples of northern refugia exist from the Olympic Mountains, northern Idaho, and Beringia.
1:50 PM
 Combining paleoecology with a dynamic landscape model to uncover a cryptic full-Glacial refuge in Northern Italy
Paul D. Henne, University of Bern; Stéphanie Samartin, University of Bern; Petra Kaltenrieder, University of Bern; Oliver Heiri, University of Bern; Willy Tinner, University of Bern
2:10 PM
 Fossil and genetic evidence of glacial refugia for the boreal-forest species of North America
Benjamin F. Clegg, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Matias C. Fernandez, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Katy D. Heath, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Feng Sheng Hu, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
2:30 PM
 Late Quaternary demography and selection shape modern genetic structure of California valley oak: Insights from phylogeography, ecological niche modeling, and multivariate statistics
Paul F. Gugger, University of California, Los Angeles; Makihiko Ikegami, University of California, Santa Barbara; Victoria L. Sork, University of California, Los Angeles
3:10 PM
3:20 PM
 Topoclimates and plant distributions: Modeling the impacts of climate change on Mediterranean-climate vegetation
David D. Ackerly, University of California; Will Cornwell, Vrije University
3:40 PM
 Climate and vegetation in a putative Pleistocene refugium in northern Idaho inferred from sediment records
Erin M. Herring, University of Oregon; Daniel G. Gavin, University of Oregon
4:00 PM
 Spatial heterogeneity in ecologically relevant climate variables at coarse and fine scales
Kevin R. Ford, University of Washington; Ailene K. Ettinger, Tufts University; Jessica D. Lundquist, University of Washington; Mark S. Raleigh, University of Washington; Janneke Hille Ris Lambers, University of Washington
4:20 PM
 An integrative model of species range dynamics to assess responses to past climate changes
Francisco Rodríguez-Sánchez, University of Cambridge; David A. Coomes, University of Cambridge; Drew W. Purves, Microsoft Research
4:40 PM
 Integrating ensemble species distribution modeling and statistical phylogeography to inform projections of climate change impacts on species distributions
Brenna R. Forester, Duke University; Eric G. DeChaine, Western Washington University; Andy G. Bunn, Western Washington University
See more of: Organized Oral Session