Supply chain impacts on ecosystem service provision: Comparing oil palm and soy
Impacts of global trade in commodity crops on ecosystem services are beginning to be quantified using the concept of “embodied” ecosystem services. In addition, there is a field of study on how supply chain structure and actors along the supply chain influence land use and management practices. Integrating these modes of analysis along the global supply chain allows identification of the leverage points that can influence land use and management decisions that, in turn, affect the global distribution of ecosystem services affected by agriculture. Here we advance a conceptual framework for mapping both the ecosystem service impacts along the supply chain and the leverage points for effecting changes in land use and management practices. Two case studies are examined in detail: soybean and oil palm.
Some key leverage points for sustainable environmental management are similar across crop systems. Supply chain complexity influences both the leverage points and the relative distribution of ecosystem services from agriculture.