Social-ecological challenges for cost-effective restoration of degraded ecosystems
Results/Conclusions: First, I will show that when restoring for a single goal by a single agent, restoration should take place until a certain threshold is approached and possibly again during the final stage of the recovery process. Next, I will show that in the presence of conflicting goals, optimal management entails less intensive treatment over longer timescales, to fit with the timescale of natural processes. Therefore, managers should simultaneously consider multiple, potentially conflicting goals, which may require flexibility in timing of budgetary expenditures. Finally, I will show that when multiple agents restore the same ecosystem, under certain conditions there is a way to coordinate cooperation among agents by utilizing the course of time: There exists a solution (Nash equilibrium) where all agents actively participate, albeit slowly enough, such that no agent would like to free-ride.