Ecological effectiveness of protected areas: A case study from the Miombo ecoregion
Results/Conclusions The Miombo ecoregion spans 3.8 million km2 across 11 countries of southern Africa comprised of ~1500 protected areas (32% under protection). Population data shows varying trends from complete extirpations inside protected areas in the last 20 years to over 10-fold increases throughout the region. Deforestation inside protected areas is expanding rapidly due to alternative land demands, primarily from mining and agricultural expansion. These findings highlight the complexity of understanding the ecological performance of protected areas in coupled natural-human ecosystems.