Results/Conclusions Under ambient conditions, winter wheat yield varied by farming system with yields similar between the conventional (5.7 t/ha) and tilled-organic systems (5.1 t/ha; P=0.37), and lowest in the grazed-organic system (3.1 t/ha; P<0.001). Wheat yield in the hotter and drier climate condition declined 46% (P=0.02) when compared to the ambient conditions in the conventional farming system. In contrast, wheat yield in the tilled-organic system and the grazed-organic system remained at 99% and 89% relative to ambient under the hotter and drier conditions (P=0.17 and P=0.14, respectively). Weed biomass and number of weed species was highest in the grazed-organic system (14.4 g and 4.4 species per plot; P=0.08 and P=0.03, respectively), and lowest in the conventional farming system (0.60 g and 0.4 species per plot) and the tilled-organic system (3.8 g and 1.5 species per plot). Climate did not influence the number of weed species (P=0.96) or weed biomass (P=0.87) but impacted individual species seed production. Weed community composition varied in response to farming system (P=0.001, R2=0.28), but not in response to climate conditions (P=0.77, R2=0.02). Overall, our initial results indicated that there could be more resilience within organic systems to increased temperatures and lower moisture, and B. tectorum could be a better competitor against winter wheat under hotter and drier climate conditions.