Results/Conclusions Results for the seed rain traps indicate a significant difference in dispersal kernels between Guam and nearby islands with birds; as predicted, seeds fall closer to the parent tree on Guam than on islands with birds. The strength of the response varies by species, however, with one species demonstrating a negative relationship between seed rain and distance from parent tree on islands with birds, and a positive relationship on Guam. The impact of simulated bird loss on spatial structure is strongly dependent upon the strength of density dependence (a parameter set by us), with low density dependence resulting in high clumping, and high density dependence resulting in lack of recruitment. The actual spatial structure of these species on Guam is varied, but exhibits similar patterns to the simulated data. Collectively, these results suggest that birds can have large, but varied, impacts on recruitment of fleshy-fruited tree species.