Biodiversity and ecosystem service: What is the evidence for a link?
Results/Conclusions We found that the BES relationship depends on both the type of BES link investigated and specific ecosystem service in focus. For example, studies of carbon sequestration typically quantified spatial coincidence between biodiversity and ecosystem service provision, and report both positive and neutral responses to increasing biodiversity. Alternatively, pollination studies generally focused on management efforts to increase ecosystem service production, and report positive responses to increasing biodiversity. This review shows that evidence is mixed, and this is partially explained by studies drawing conclusions from different types of links and spatial scales. Understanding the dynamic BES link has critical implications for conservation actions seeking to simultaneously address biodiversity and human well-being as parallel goals.