Results/Conclusions Our recent studies demonstrate that interactions among pinyons, herbivores and drought stress are strongly dependent upon the genotype of the pinyon and which herbivore is involved. For example, pinyons that were resistant to the moth were 3x as likely to experience drought related mortality than susceptible individuals. In contrast however, juvenile pinyons resistant to the scale herbivore were more likely to survive the drought than scale susceptible trees. Interestingly, the response of the herbivores themselves also showed opposite patterns. The scale was much more abundant under drought conditions, while moth abundance actually decreased during the drought years. Our recent findings also show that associated insect and EMF communities differ between resistant and susceptible pinyons. Taken together, our findings suggest that genetic variation in a tree population can be an important factor in determining its response to future climate change, and argue for the inclusion of genetics into models developed to understand the consequences of climate change. We also argue that climate change driven changes in a foundation species will have important impacts on associated communities and possibly alter ecosystem processes that are important in recovery from extreme climatic events.